**Reference P64 library implementation in C**

**P64 file format specification**

P64 file format specification by Benjamin 'BeRo' Rosseaux <benjamin@rosseaux.com> ! All values are in little endian order ! +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ P64 Header Layout ¦ +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F +---------------------------------------------------------------+ 0000: ¦'P'¦'6'¦'4'¦'-'¦'1'¦'5'¦'4'¦'1'¦ Version ¦ Flags ¦ +---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+ 0010: ¦ Size ¦ CRC32Checksum ¦ +-------------------------------+ Version: File format version, current is 0x00000000 Size Size of the following whole chunk content stream Flags: Bit 0 = Write protect Bit 1-31 = Reserved, all set to 0 when creating a file, preserve existing value when updating CRC32CheckSum: CRC32 checksum of the following whole chunk content stream +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ P64 Chunk Header Layout ¦ +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F +-----------------------------------------------+ 0000: ¦Chunk Signature¦ Size ¦ CRC32Checksum ¦ +-----------------------------------------------+ Chunk signature: Signature of chunk Size: Size of the chunk data CRC32CheckSum: CRC32 checksum of the chunk data +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ P64 Chunk 'HTPx' Layout ¦ +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ x = half track index byte ¦ +---------------------------+ Track 18 = Half track 36 = Half track index byte decimal value 36 Half track NRZI transition flux pulse data chunk block 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F +---------------------------------------------------------------+ 0000: ¦ Count pulses ¦ Size ¦ ..... Range-encoded data .... ¦ +---------------------------------------------------------------+ Count pulses: Count of the NRZI transition flux pulses in half track Size: Size of the range-encoded data +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ 'HTPx' Range encoded data format ¦ +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ Hint: For a working C implememtation see p64.c and p64.h The range coder is a FPAQ0-style range coder combined with 12-bit 0-order models, one model per byte with one bit per byte processing. +--------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ Sub stream ¦ Count of models ¦ Size per model ¦ Total value bits ¦ +------------------+-----------------+------------------+------------------+ ¦ Position ¦ 4 ¦ 65536 ¦ 32 | +------------------+-----------------+------------------+------------------+ ¦ Strength ¦ 4 ¦ 65536 ¦ 32 | +------------------+-----------------+------------------+------------------+ ¦ Position flag ¦ 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 1 ¦ +------------------+-----------------+------------------+------------------+ ¦ Strenth flag ¦ 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 1 ¦ +------------------+-----------------+------------------+------------------+ +===Total models===¦ 10 ¦==================¦==================¦ +--------------------------------------------------------------------------+ All initial model state values are initialized with zero. All initial model probability values are initialized with 2048. These model probability values will be updating in a adaptive way on the fly and not precalculated before the encoding and even not loaded before the decoding, see pseudo code below. 16000000 Hz / 5 rotations per second at 300 RPM = maximal 3200000 flux pulses So NRZI transition flux pulse positions are in the 0 .. 3199999 value range, which is also a exact single rotation, where each time unit is a cycle at 16 MHz with 300 RPM as a mapping for the ideal case. The NRZI transition flux pulse stength are in the 0x00000000 .. 0xffffffff value range, where 0xffffffff indices a strong flux pulse, that always triggers, and 0x00000001 indices a weak flux pulse, that almost never triggers, and 0x00000000 indices a flux pulse, that absolutly never triggers. For 32-bit values, the model sub streams are subdivided byte wide in a little-endian manner, and each byte is processed bitwise with model probability shifting of 4 bits, just as: ========================== PASCAL-STYLE PSEUDO CODE ========================== = procedure WriteDWord(Model, Value : longword); = = var ByteValue, ByteIndex, Context, Bit : longword; = = begin = = for ByteIndex := 0 to 3 do begin = = ByteValue := (Value shr (ByteIndex shl 3)) and $ff; = = Context := 1; = = for Bit := 7 downto 0 do begin = = Context := (Context shl 1) or RangeCoderEncodeBit( = = RangeCoderProbabilities[ = = RangeCoderProbabilityOffsets[Model + ByteIndex] + = = (((RangeCoderProbabilityStates[Model + ByteIndex] = = shl 8) or Context) and $ffff)], 4, (ByteValue shr = = Bit) and 1); = = end; = = RangeCoderProbabilityStates[Model+ByteIndex] := ByteValue; = = end; = = end; = ========================== PASCAL-STYLE PSEUDO CODE ========================== And for 1-bit flag values it is much simpler, but also with model probability shifting of 4 bits, just as: ========================== PASCAL-STYLE PSEUDO CODE ========================== = procedure WriteBit(Model, Value : longword); = = begin = = RangeCoderProbabilityStates[Model] := = = RangeCoderEncodeBit(RangeCoderProbabilities[ = = RangeCoderProbabilityOffsets[Model] + = = RangeCoderProbabilityStates[Model]], 4, Value and 1); = = end; = ========================== PASCAL-STYLE PSEUDO CODE ========================== The position and strength values are delta-encoded. If a value is equal to the last previous value, then the value will not encoded, instead, a flag for this will encoded. First the position value will encoded, then the stength value. If the last position delta is 0, then it is a track stream end marker. ========================== PASCAL-STYLE PSEUDO CODE ========================== = LastPosition := 0; = = PreviousDeltaPosition := 0 = = = = LastStrength := 0; = = = = for PulseIndex := 0 to PulseCount - 1 do begin = = = = DeltaPosition := Pulses[PulseIndex].Position - LastPosition; = = if PreviousDeltaPosition <> DeltaPosition then begin = = PreviousDeltaPosition := DeltaPosition; = = WriteBit(ModelPositionFlag, 1) = = WriteDWord(ModelPosition, DeltaPosition); = = end else begin = = WriteBit(ModelPositionFlag, 0); = = end; = = LastPosition := Pulses[PulseIndex].Position; = = = = if LastStrength <> Pulses[PulseIndex].Strength then begin = = WriteBit(ModelStrengthFlag, 1) = = WriteDWord(ModelStrength, Pulses[PulseIndex].Strength - LastStrength); = = end else begin = = WriteBit(ModelStrengthFlag, 0); = = end; = = LastStrength := Pulses^[PulseIndex].Strength; = = = = end; = = = = // End code = = WriteBit(ModelPositionFlag, 1); = = WriteDWord(ModelPosition, 0); = = = ========================== PASCAL-STYLE PSEUDO CODE ========================== The decoding is simply just in the another direction way. Pseudo code for a FPAQ0-style carryless range coder: ========================== PASCAL-STYLE PSEUDO CODE ========================== = procedure RangeCoderInit; // At encoding and decoding start = = begin = = RangeCode := 0; = = RangeLow := 0; = = RangeHigh := $ffffffff; = = end; = = = = procedure RangeCoderStart; // At decoding start = = var Counter : longword; = = begin = = for Counter := 1 to 4 do begin = = RangeCode := (RangeCode shl 8) or ReadByteFromInput; = = end; = = end; = = = = procedure RangeCoderFlush; // At encoding end = = var Counter : longword; = = begin = = for Counter := 1 to 4 do begin = = WriteByteToOutput(RangeHigh shr 24); = = RangeHigh := RangeHigh shl 8; = = end; = = end; = = = = procedure RangeCoderEncodeNormalize; = = begin = = while ((RangeLow xor RangeHigh) and $ff000000) = 0 do begin = = WriteByteToOutput(RangeHigh shr 24); = = RangeLow := RangeLow shl 8; = = RangeHigh := (RangeHigh shl 8) or $ff; = = end; = = end; = = = = function RangeCoderEncodeBit(var Probability : longword; Shift, = = BitValue : longword) : longword; = = begin = = RangeMiddle := RangeLow + (((RangeHigh - RangeLow) shr 12) * = = Probability); = = if BitValue <> 0 then begin = = inc(Probability, ($fff - Probability) shr Shift); = = RangeHigh := RangeMiddle; = = end else begin = = dec(Probability, Probability shr Shift); = = RangeLow := RangeMiddle + 1; = = end; = = RangeCoderEncodeNormalize; = = result := BitValue; = = end; = = = = procedure RangeCoderDecodeNormalize; = = begin = = while ((RangeLow xor RangeHigh) and $ff000000) = 0 do begin = = RangeLow := RangeLow shl 8; = = RangeHigh := (RangeHigh shl 8) or $ff; = = RangeCode := (RangeCode shl 8) or ReadByteFromInput; = = end; = = end; = = = = function RangeCoderDecodeBit(var Probability : longword; = = Shift : longword) : longword; = = begin = = RangeMiddle := RangeLow + (((RangeHigh - RangeLow) shr 12) * = = Probability); = = if RangeCode <= RangeMiddle then begin = = inc(Probability, ($fff - Probability) shr Shift); = = RangeHigh := RangeMiddle; = = result := 1; = = end else begin = = dec(Probability, Probability shr Shift); = = RangeLow := RangeMiddle + 1; = = result := 0; = = end; = = RangeCoderDecodeNormalize; = = end; = = = ============================================================================== The probability may be never zero! But that can't happen here with this adaptive model in this P64 file format, since the adaptive model uses a shift factor of 4 bits and initial probabilities value of 2048, so the probability has a value range from 15 up to 4080 here. If you do want to use the above range coder routines for other stuff with other probability models, then you must to ensure that the probability output value is never zero, for example with "probability |= (probability < 1); " in C. +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ P64 Chunk 'DONE' Layout ¦ +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ This is the last empty chunk for to signalize that the correct file end is reached.